17th June, 2020 Drypool 6, Point of view 16.

The map extract above is from Goodwill and Lawson’s Plan of Hull, 1842, and shows the extent of change across the Drypool area over the intervening years from 1817 (Cragg’s ‘plan’, s.p.b.s).

One interesting point is that Drypool retained its ‘village green’ (Drypool Square’) in the face of industrialisation and suburbanisation, this unlike Sculcoates and Newland.

Again, as in the development of Sculcoates (s.p.b.s), parts of Drypool are shown on Goodwill and Lawson’s plan as apparently being plots of parterre/formal gardens, again on the fringes of the built-up areas. Whether these were commercial ventures, open to the public sometimes with an entry fee to generate an income for the owner or whether some other explanation exists I am not sure. If my supposition is correct they must have been like proto-parks, like mini versions of the earlier Strawberry Fields, places of resort on the outer fringes of Hessle Road.

Clearly the number of residential developments and industrial sites had increased since 1817 (s.p.b.) but ribbon development aligned to the meanders of the lower River Hull and along Witham and  the west end of Holderness Road was still much in evidence.

North of Witham and still (1842) in one of Drypool’s remaining fields the site of St. Mark’s church is shown, this presumably ‘work in progress’ as David Neave records that it was consecrated in 1844 (Lost Churches and Chapels of Hull 1991, 58). St. Mark’s was built to serve this south-western part of Sutton parish (s.p.b. parish boundaries) ‘together with the extra-parochial area of Garrison Side’ (p.58 and s.p.b.). This area of Drypool became known as ‘the Groves’, a term considered before in connection with the development of the Sculcoates area. St. Mark’s was badly damaged by enemy bombing in the early 1940s and demolished in the late 1950s. It, and many more, serve as examples of the vast capital investment in building places of worship in Victorian and Edwardian Britain.

(to be continued)

Point of view 16 – Animal rights charities and organisations around the World are campaigning against the export of live farm animals. Recently Animals Australia managed to get the government of Australia to ban live exports to the Middle East over the summer months. Now the government has granted an ‘exemption’ allowing 50,000 sheep to be exported to Kuwait in one ship in the Summer. As with slave ships in the past, a few tens of deaths from trampling, heat exhaustion or just giving-up life are collateral damage in the name of global ‘trade’. And anyway when they get there, if still alive, they will be killed by having their throats cut and dying of blood loss. And anyway its important to respect religious traditions. Some say.

16th June, 2020. Drypool 5.

The map extract above repeats that from Cragg’s Plan of Hull, 1817, shown in the previous blog. Three further points from this extract invite attention; (a) Drypool’s parish boundary, (b) the ‘Yards’ of Drypool, (c) the mills of Drypool. I think it is fair to say that from the evidence shown on this map Drypool, by 1817, had become a suburb of Hull rather than an independent village.

(a) Close examination of the stippled parish boundary shows that the Garrison and area immediately north up to North Bridge was not in Drypool parish, whether it was in St. Mary’s, Lowgate of Holy Trinity, Hull is not clear. Indeed the term ‘extra parochial’ appears on the map north of Drypool Square but its significance is not clear.

Drypool parish was relatively small and Drypool’s residential and industrial growth north of North Bridge was in Sutton Parish, with part of ‘Sudcoates’ (Southcoates) parish shown in the north-east corner of the extract. Incidentally in the vicinity of the Sutton/Sudcoates parish boundary  seven mills (c) were sited (the round black dots with a white centre). Despite the word ‘mill’ being often used as an alternative to ‘factory’ maybe these were windmills, if so by 1817 they could well have been tower mills and being round in cross-section were given this symbol on the ‘Plan’. Assuming this to have been the case they were presumably corn grinding mills serving the rural area east of Drypool but conveniently near a main market.

(b) The ‘Yards’ of Drypool. From north to south the ‘Yards’ identified on the map extract are; Greenland Yards, Timber Yards (a number), Boat Yard, Ship Yards (3) and Raff Yard(?). Three of these are self-explanatory, Greenland Yard was where products from the whaling industry were produced while Raff yard I cannot explain, although the fact that it is next to a ship yard may hold a clue.

(to be continued)

15th June, 2020 Drypool 4, Point of view 15.

Moving forward in time from Thew’s map of 1784 (s.p.b.) Hargrave’s map of 1791 shows little change in Drypool but presents what features there were more accurately. The ‘Road to Headon’ was more clearly defined immediately east of ‘North Bridge’ (an odd term as there was no bridge to its south) although it was not to be turnpiked until 1830, the second to last to be created in the 19th century, six years before the Ottringham to Sunk Island turnpike (see MacMahon, K.A. Roads and Turnpike Trusts in Eastern Yorkshire (E.Y.L.H.S., 1964, 70). The old North Blockhouse (of the initial linear east-bank defences, s.p.b.s) still stood isolated where in 1830 a toll-gate must have been erected. Immediately north of this spot and right beside the east bank of the River Hull was a long development with post-Enclosure fields to its east. The village houses are shown just north of the Citadel and immediately north of the old church of St. Peter’s (s.p.b.s). A circular feature suggests a village green.

Cragg’s ‘A New Plan of the Town of Kingston-Upon-Hull and its Environs’, 1817, shows that much change had happened in Drypool during the time of the French Wars. The scan above shows the right-hand half of Cragg’s map.

The western end of ‘Holderness Road’ (still not a turnpike) was now built-up and called Witham (as today). By 1817 Sutton Drain had been dug and, like Cottingham and Barmston Drains, its waters were directed into the River Hull to aid the scouring of the ‘Old Harbour’ (s.p.b.s, and at the southern end of Cleveland St. today a bridge survives under which the, now culverted, Sutton Drain once passed).

Here, 1817, the parish church of St. Peter’s is shown as having narrow transepts, this contrasting with Poulson’s sketch dated 1822 (s.p.b.s). North of the church was, in 1817, ‘Drypool Square’. As the word ‘Drypool’ was always written beside this feature it seems that the Green/Square was on the site of a dried-up pond, the Dry-Pool.

(to be continued)

Point of view 15 – Recently heard a bit of a radio programme about someone who followed the course of the River Tyne downstream from source to mouth. When growing-up it was a thing I always wanted to do in my own area by row-boat. I never did, partly because I never had a row-boat. The river in question is now but a trickle as the water table in the East Anglian Heights is so much lower. As an adult I have walked the courses of the rivers Ouse (Yorkshire) and Hull, on the river banks. Actually to have done that in a row-boat would have meant that views of the surrounding land would have been blocked by the river’s banks. Also walked the east coast of England in many stages in the 1990s from the Scottish border to central Essex. A sad conclusion to this event came in 2013 – to be continued.

11th June, 2020 Drypool 3.

The photo above shows the ruined church of St. Peter’s, Drypool after being bombed in 1941, scanned from Neave, D. Lost Churches and Chapels of Hull (1991, 57 and s.p.b.).

The first map showing any post medieval detail of Drypool village area I currently have access to is Hollar’s ‘bird’s eye view’ plan of Hull of 1640. By then a massive linear fortification had been built in Drypool village to defend Hull from possible land attack from Holderness, (this built following instructions issued by Henry VIII after his visits of 1541) comprising of a thick wall with a fort at its southern and northern ends and a third fort in the middle. This must have dwarfed the village which Hollar shows as about 10 cottages north of the church (in contrast to the village shown in the medieval plan, see Drypool (1), five of the cottages appear to cluster around a village green (see later). However, Hollar also shows the position of a six-arch bridge over the River Hull connecting North Gate in the medieval town walls with the north Fort on the Drypool side. Thus Drypool citizens now had a convenient way of going to and from Hull.

On Buck’s ‘The South-East Prospect of Kingston upon Hull’ three buildings are shown on the extreme right (apart from the fort) one being the church tower, matching Poulson’s illustration in having diagonal buttresses (see picture Drypool 2) the others being a large house and a double-pitch roofed building of uncertain purpose. Clearly then still, by the mid 18th century, Drypool was still a rural area apart from the defences.

By the time of Thew’s ‘Plan of the Town of Kingston upon Hull’, 1784, the linear fortification had been replaced by the Citadel, a moated and walled triangular structure incorporating a ‘magazine’, ‘Blockhouse’ (beside the mouth of the River Hull), ‘officer’s barracks’, ‘soldier’s barracks’ and ‘French Prison'(?). The position of Drypool church is shown but the rest of the village simply shown as a terrace of six cottages and a large area of ‘Closes’.

(to be continued).

11th June, 2020 Drypool 2, Point of view 14d.

The last blog, Drypool (1), shows the representation of the village of Drypool on the east bank of the River Hull, from a medieval (allegedly) Plan of Hull. The presentation maybe stylised but shows a linear village stretching south from the church across land that is now a bit of the A63, a bit of Victoria Dock village and the site of The Deep.

The issue left ‘in the air’ last time was that of the lower course of the River Hull. It was speculated by some (s.p.b. and Hull in the Beginning) that at a point in southern Sculcoates area the course of the River turned west and then south, exiting into the Humber at a point roughly where the lock of Albert Dock now is, there being here in the 18th century the mouth of a ‘drain’ known then as Limekiln Drain/Beck (not sure). Furthermore, that the present lower course of the River was a result of the River breaking through a local watershed between it and Sayer Drain, probably a canalised drainage channel exiting into the Humber where the mouth of the River Hull now is, this in the 13th century. Thus for at least four centuries early Drypool would not have been beside the River, this making the ‘dried up pool’ idea (s.p.b.) more credible.

George Poulson states (The History and Antiquities of the Seigniory of Holderness (1840, 342) that the medieval church at Drypool was replaced in 1824, the image above taken from his text and dated 1822, the church clearly then in a ruinous state. The late-Georgian replacement church was to become rather hemmed-in by the creation of Victoria Dock in the 1850s and was later in turn demolished after the Second World War having been itself ruined by enemy bombing, although the tower remained standing for a few more years. The site of the once St. Peter’s, Drypool is now a small grassed area.

(to be continued)

Point of view 14d – Charles Darwin wrote ‘Man in his arrogance thinks himself a great work worthy (of being) the interposition of a deity. More humble, and I believe truer, to consider him created from animals’. A big answer to the question ‘if man is made in god’s image why war, planetary destruction, criminal behaviour, immorality etc.’ is that man was also given free will. Why? Given that logic is a standard yardstick, it doesn’t make sense.

10th June, 2020 Drypool, Point of view 14c.

Continuing the current theme of late Georgian Hull suburbs I cross the River Hull to Drypool.

The map extract above is taken from  a 14th century plan of Hull discovered by Hull historian Charles Frost in the Cotton Manuscripts in the British Museum (referenced in a number of earlier blogs).

Remarkably Drypool remained a village well into early modern times even though it stood, almost literally, within a ‘stone’s throw’ from the commercial centre of medieval and early modern Hull, so-much-so that village residents could have, within a short walk, stood on the east bank of the lower River and seen all the comings and goings across and on the River. This was so for two main reasons; (a) not until the late 16th century was a bridge built over the lower River Hull (roughly where ‘North Bridge’ now stands), and (b) Kingston upon Hull developed entirely on the west bank of the lower River Hull, in effect until the early 19th century (excluding the east bank Tudor fortifications and later Citadel).

As regards (a) above there is evidence of a number of ferries crossing the River in its middle and upper courses, these usually rope-pull rafts or the like. Such a ferry crossing from Drypool to the mercantile area along the west bank would have been a great hindrance to trade and shipping to and from the staithes and is therefore unlikely to have existed. As to the reason(s) for (b) above some consideration is given in the article Hull in the Beginning in the Articles and Publications section of this website.

Drypool as a settlement is much older than Wyk (Hull) being listed in the Domesday Survey of 1086, like Myton but unlike Wyk.

In terms of its etymology Drypool, surprisingly perhaps, meant what it states ‘a dried-up pool’ (see English Place-Name Society Vol XIV p. 212-213). This fact invites some consideration of an hypothesis popular with some local historians in the 19th century that the lower course of the River Hull was re-routed in the 13th century by natural or man-made interventions (this issue also discussed in Hull in the Beginning).   (To be continued).

Point of view 14(c) – If, as Physics and Maths suggest, (and I am no expert), the Universe from its smallest particle to its fullest extent can be explained by formulas and the laws of Physics then surely Nature (for lack of a better term) is the God of all things.