Monthly Archives: October 2019

29th October, 2019 County maps of East Yorkshire 13.

The image of Beverley Minster included on Bowen’s county map of 1832 (see above) is interesting in that it shows the Minster as might be seen today from the Beverley end of Long Lane, a majestic building the product of a two-hundred year east to west building programme spanning the three main eras of Gothic architecture. However one feature shown but not there today is the cupola sitting on the top of the crossing tower. This was approximately one hundred years old when portrayed in 1832 being possibly the only external evidence of the Georgian restoration of the church carried-out between 1716 and 1769, the initial plans being drawn-up by Nicholas Hawksmoor with the early work-programme overseen by William Thornton.

The representation of Beverley Minster from a similar angle and dated 1656 shows that the cupola replaced an earlier elegant octagonal lantern-tower that may have dated from the 15th century (see one similar surviving at All Saints church in the centre of York). A lantern tower was just that, a structure in which a fire was lit in a brazier burning wood, brash or coal and having the function of an inland lighthouse.

A guide-booklet for the Minster reprinted in 1997 lists some facts about the Georgian restoration – 400 people, including women and children, were employed (for the majority of these there would have been no contract of employment, paid daily and with a virtual shut-down of the building programme during the winter). Daily wages ranged from two to three shillings for master masons to two to four pence for children.

There was much more evidence of the Georgian restoration inside the Minster to create an ‘auditory church’. When features of the Georgian restoration were removed as part of the ‘Gothic Revival’  beginning in the 1820s one removed feature, two fluted columns supporting an entablature, were taken to New Hall, Barton on Humber to create an open porch as may be seen today. Presumably an unusual cargo for the Hessle to Barton ferry (my work on the History of Humber Crossings has yet to be written-up).

For the time being this is as much as I will write about the County maps of East Yorkshire.

28th October, 2019 County maps of East Yorkshire 12.

The picture above is of the top right-hand corner of Greenwood’s map (s.p.b.s) and forms the title credit. The bit of the map visible shows Flamborough Head, and immediately south the fact that Bridlington (Burlington) and Bridlington Quay were then (1832) still quite separate settlements.

Despite some features on the map being indistinct two elements are made very clear – borough boundaries and private parks. The former shows that the eastern boundary of Beverley borough was the River Hull with the western boundary stretching out beyond the Westwood and the southern boundary extending beyond Woodmansey and Thearne. Hull’s borough boundary had by then incorporated Sculcoates but not Cottingham Common or Stoneferry. To the east Drypool and Summergangs had been incorporated and to the west the Myton area (formerly of Hessle Common), (see A History of Hessle Common (now south-west Hull) in the Publications and Articles section of this website).

Private parklands are shown clearly in a bright green colour. This county map is particularly useful to the landscape historian as ‘Heaths, Commons and open roads’ and ‘woods’ are also fairly clearly shown. For example around Market Weighton the private parklands of Londesbrough Hall, Everingham Hall and Holme on Spalding Moor Hall (named on the map as just ‘Holme’), the ‘woods’ of North Cliffe (along the scarp slope looking out to Wallingfen) and the ‘heaths’ north-west of North Cave and west of ‘Holme’ are all shown clearly.

In Holderness the private parklands of Winestead Hall and White Hall, Rise and Burton Constable are shown as are a large area of heathland south of Nunkeeling, an area north of Leven and a linear area inland from Mappleton. Unsurprisingly, given its density of rural population throughout the Middle Ages, no large are of ‘woods’ is shown in Holderness.

In Barton two areas of private parklands are shown for Baysgarth House and Kingswood, nearby Barrow Hall also had an extensive parkland.

27th October, 2019 County maps of East Yorkshire 11.

Greenwood’s map is the last of those listed in the blog of 28th August last. Christopher Greenwood (1786-1855) was a London publisher who compiled and published maps of most of the counties of England. Quoting from the notes on the back  of a print of this map, along with other East Yorkshire county maps published by the University of Hull in 1990, ‘He (C. Greenwood) founded the firm (map-making business) in Yorkshire (having been brought-up in the West Riding) and guided its expansion to London. The idea of an atlas of large-scale county maps was his and he directed the work of the surveys, the collection of secondary data and their compilation into map form’. Greenwood’s map was engraved by J. and C. Walker (masters of their trade) and includes in the lower left-hand corner a contemporary print of Beverley Minster (part showing on the image above). It also includes a more detailed ‘Explanation’ (key) of 20 symbols (alongside the print of the Minster, see above) making this map much-like the Ordnance Survey one inch to one mile First Series being surveyed at the same time. The elaborate credit in the top right-hand corner (see part above) states that the map was first published on April 1st, 1834 and that it was the result of an ‘actual survey’ conducted in 1831-’32, also giving Greenwood and Co. address as Burleigh St., off the Strand, London, a street which still exists near Covent Garden.

Greenwood’s map incorporates feint colours, although (to me) their purpose is unclear, Hull and Hullshire, for example, having the same light-blue colour as the area between South Dalton and Great Driffield. Also it is not easy to distinguish between roads and rivers (the course of the River Hull being an exception) although ‘parks and pleasure grounds’ are clearly portrayed. Again Greenwood shows some detail for the south-bank of the Humber Estuary, north riding of Lincolshire, this respecting the connections between both banks. The details of roads, settlements and the like on the south bank show great accuracy, Greenwood’s workforce must have surveyed this linear area also.

(to be continued)

21st October, 2019 County maps of East Yorkshire 10.

Bowen’s mid 18th century county map incorporates a mine of information but mostly in the form of writing rather than by a lot of symbols and a comprehensive key. There is a small key ‘Explanation’ which distinguishes rectories from vicarages by a letter over a stylised church symbol, which identifies the site of ‘Antient Religious Houses’, which identifies Parliamentary boroughs returning M.P.s (York 2, Hull 2, Beverley 1) and which identifies ‘post stages’, this last point linking to the early days of turnpikes and the stopping points of stage coaches. Other than this information is given by wording on the map in the correct locations. To do this various types of lettering were used e.g. block capitals with seriphs for wapontake names (s.p.b.s), lower case block letters for place names and lower case italic lettering for the location of smaller places. Just as should be today, the town of Kingston upon Hull was given its proper name ‘KINGSTON Supra. Hull’, albeit with a variety of lettering!

In the section of ‘The German Ocean’ shown and in the ‘Part of the West Riding’ shown paragraphs give information about certain places. Howden, for example, is described as ‘situated near the River Derwent which glides on with a large stream near this town, besides its market on Sat. it has a fair on Sep. 14th for 9 days where the Londoners furnish the Country Trades with all sorts of Goods by wholesale. This place has suffered greatly by Inundations’. The abbreviations ‘Th & Sat.’ above Hull on the map presumably give the days of Hull’s weekly markets.

Bowen was keen on historical references for example, ‘Flixton is noted for an Hospital built here in the Time of Athelstan’, ‘Abus Estuarium’ (Roman term for the Humber Estuarium) and ‘Gabran Tovicorum alias Sinus Salutaris’ near the site of ‘Bridlington Key’ (Quay).

15th October, 2019 County maps of East Yorkshire 9.

By taking an area of Bowen’s county map of the mid 18th century we can assess its value to students of area within the County. The above image (not the best) shows the area of the lower River Hull valley, Hull and ‘Hullshire’ and the south-eastern section of the Yorkshire Wolds. Incidentally county maps were produced to commission so Bowen was not required to portray any details south of the Humber Estuary, the fact that he did show Barton (albeit not very accurately) reinforces its connection to Hull and the trade of the Estuary. What Bowen does show is the distribution of mudflats across the Estuary at that time, these being potential hazards to navigation and it is interesting to compare this evidence with later and contemporary navigational charts of the Estuary (see Landmarks and Beacons in the Publications and Articles section of this website).

In the section of Bowen’s map shown above Bowen shows the border of ‘Hullshire’. This curiosity never was a ‘shire county’ proper but nevertheless remained until relatively recent times. Gillett and MacMahon (s.p.b., p. 57) record its creation/extension in 1447. Certainly part of the reason for this jurisdiction was to give Hull’s ruling elite control over the area from which they obtained their fresh water supply, that being the spring-line settlements along the base of the dip slope of the Yorkshire Wolds. Thus the parishes of Hessle, North Ferriby, Swanlnd, Westella, Kirkella Tranby Willerby, Wolfreton, Anlaby and Haltemprice (see map ‘Haltom Price’) were in Hullshire – this interestingly reflected in the modern situation where the City Council would like to extend Hull’s western boundary to incorporate these now suburbs but prejudice, and a preference for an East Yorkshire address, overcomes the logic of the idea for most suburban residents.

Bowen shows no evidence of any expansion of Hull’s built-up area beyond the medieval town walls but it is at this level that the scale of a county map can be unsatisfactory.

(to be continued)

13th October, 2019 County maps of East Yorkshire 8.

Incidentally Bowen’s 18th century county map shows both keels and slopes amongst the single-masted vessels sailing the Estuary – but I struggle to remember which is which.

The cluster of masts in the centre of the picture shows the ‘old harbour’, the western bank of the lower River Hull near its mouth, where the staithes, jetties and warehouses had been clustered for three to four hundred years. Inland of these and running parallel to the River Hull was High Street (medieval name Hull Street) where, at the time of Bowen’s map most of the merchants still lived. Presumably Bowen’s map preceded the building of the new dock (later Queens Dock), although not by much time. The crowding of vessels in the ‘old harbour’ remained for decades a problem for ‘three-masters’ wishing to access the Dock, for some details on the building programme of the new dock see Gillett and MacMahon A History of Hull (Hull University Press, 1989, p.229).

Bowen’s illustration also shows clearly the south blockhouse of the Citadel immediately east of the lower River Hull, this built in the 1580s to improve Hull’s defences as demanded by Henry VIII after visiting Hull twice in 1541 during his ‘Northern Progress’. The initial bridging of the River in the 1500s meant that no longer could the River be a satisfactory eastern defence for the town. As stated on the illustration the south Blockhouse had a ’12 gun battery’. The wording below the illustration describes at the Citadel a deep trench, a castle and ‘several sluices so contrived that when the floodgates are pulled up they can drown the country for three or four miles round’. The reference to ‘a castle’ is potentially misleading.

The west tower of St. Mary, Lowgate shows clearly, this having been re-built in 1697 (s.p.b.s). The ‘walk through’ at the base of this tower seen today was a product of 19th century improvement, a compromise which avoided St Mary’s losing its west tower for a second time.

(to be continued)